SChloro: directing Viridiplantae proteins to six chloroplastic sub-compartments
Savojardo Castrense, Martelli Pier Luigi, Fariselli Piero, Casadio Rita
Bioinformatics (2016) Journal website

Chloroplasts are organelles found in plants and involved in several important cell processes. Similarly to other compartments in the cell, chloroplasts have an internal structure comprising several sub-compartments, where different proteins are targeted to perform their functions. Given the relation between protein function and localization, the availability of effective computational tools to predict protein sub-organelle localizations is crucial for large-scale functional studies.

In this paper we present SChloro, a novel machine-learning approach to predict protein sub-chloroplastic localization, based on targeting signal detection and membrane protein information. The proposed approach performs multi-label predictions discriminating six chloroplastic sub-compartments that include inner membrane, outer membrane, stroma, thylakoid lumen, plastoglobule and thylakoid membrane. In comparative benchmarks, the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods in both single- and multi-compartment predictions, with an overall multi-label accuracy of 74%. The results demonstrate the relevance of the approach that is eligible as a good candidate for integration into more general large-scale annotation pipelines of protein subcellular localization.